Gears work on the principle of mechanical advantage. Different types of gears are used according to the industrial requirement. Gears are found in a wide range of industries like aeronautics, mining, manufacturing chains in the automotive sector, pharmaceutical industry, textiles, and more.
Basic operation of gears are based on the coupling between a crown and a pinion as sprockets and are manufactured with various materials with different tooth widths, face width, head circumference, and circular pitch. According to the position and shape of their teeth they are classified into parallel axis and nonparallel axis gears.
Parallel axis gears are Spur cylindrical gear, Helical cylindrical gears, and double helical gears or Herringbone gears.
Spur cylindrical gears generate radial reaction loads on the axis and transmit power through parallel shafts. The simplest of gear and it is usually used for small and medium speeds, because it generates noise as the speed increases.
In Helical cylindrical gears the power transfer occurs in the same way as in Spur gear but the axis can be parallel or nonparallel. The teeth in these gears are oblique in relation to the rotation axis and so they transmit more movement and at a higher speed. They are more silent, but require more lubrication and they wear more quickly.
Double helical gears or Herringbone gears combine the right and left helix. A symmetrical branch generates an opposite and equal thrust. They eliminate the axial thrust which means that bearings and supports no longer have to absorb it.
Nonparallel axis gears consists of Screw Gears, Spur, or Straight Bevel Gears, Spiral Bevel Gears, Hypoid Gears, Worm Wheels, and Worm Screws.
Screw Gears perform a wedge or screw movement resulting in a high degree of slip on the tooth flanks. They can move in the same direction or the opposite. Spur or Straight Bevel gears are not mush used today. By means of conical toothed surfaces they transmit the movement of axis that are cut in the same plane, usually in right angle. With axes positioned at 90 degrees they are often used to slow down and are noisy. The contact surface in a Spiral Bevel gears is larger compared to straight bevel gears. They can transmit the motion of axis that are cut and used to lower the speed on shafts of 90 degrees. In Hypoid gears their attack pinion is off-centre in relation to the axis of the crown. They have a long service life and low noise. They are usually used in boats and industrial machines. Worm Wheels have a worm screw, which functions as a conductor, and a crown, driven by it. The screw moves the crown with its turn.
There are some gears for special applications like Internal or Ring gears which are similar to Spur gears although their teeth are not ground on the outside, but on the inside of a wheel or rimmed ring. The inner gears are driven by pinion drives which maintains the direction of angular velocity. Planetary Gears also known as Epicyclic gears is a gear train in which a central gear has one or several external gears around it. They are commonly used for automobile transmissions. Rack and Pinion are used in lathes to move the longitudinal carriage; they do not have a transmission ratio, but a length ratio.
The different types of gears are used in many sectors like agricultural automotive naval vehicles, wind power, cement manufacturing industries, roller mills, and more.
Speed Reducer use circular and toothed gear pairs to lower the motor speed efficiently and safely. Gears with very different diameters to reduce the speed of rotation additionally.
They are generally used for two purposes; to multiply the amount of torque generated by an input power source to increase the amount of usable work and also to reduce the input power source speed to achieve desired output speeds.
There are different types of speed reducers depending on the classification and types of gearbox used for different purposes. Some of the types are planetary speed reducer, Spur and Helical, Worm and Bevel.
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